Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT4G31800.1
Common NameATWRKY18, F28M20.10, WRKY18
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family WRKY
Protein Properties Length: 310aa    MW: 34765.8 Da    PI: 7.3768
Description WRKY DNA-binding protein 18
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT4G31800.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
         WRKY   1 ldDgynWrKYGqKevkgsefprsYYrCtsa.gCpvkkkversaedpkvveitYegeHnh 58 
                  ++Dg++WrKYGqK+ ++++ pr+Y+rC++a +Cpvkkkv+rsaedp++++ tYeg+Hnh
                  58***************************99**************************** PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
Gene3DG3DSA: domain
SuperFamilySSF1182908.63E-25171234IPR003657WRKY domain
SMARTSM007741.4E-33175235IPR003657WRKY domain
PfamPF031065.3E-24176233IPR003657WRKY domain
PROSITE profilePS5081125.499177236IPR003657WRKY domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0002237Biological Processresponse to molecule of bacterial origin
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009751Biological Processresponse to salicylic acid
GO:0010200Biological Processresponse to chitin
GO:0042742Biological Processdefense response to bacterium
GO:0050691Biological Processregulation of defense response to virus by host
GO:0050832Biological Processdefense response to fungus
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0042802Molecular Functionidentical protein binding
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000005anatomycultured plant cell
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 310 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
1wj2_A8e-201682331174Probable WRKY transcription factor 4
2lex_A8e-201682331174Probable WRKY transcription factor 4
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.190310.0flower| leaf| root| seed
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT4G31800-
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRPathogen-induced transcription factor. Binds W-box sequences in vitro. Forms protein complexes with itself and with WRKY40 and WRKY60. Constitutive expression of WRKY18 enhanced resistance to P. syringae, but its coexpression with WRKY40 or WRKY60 made plants more susceptible to both P. syringae and B. cinerea. WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 have partially redundant roles in response to the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, with WRKY18 playing a more important role than the other two.
UniProtTranscription factor. Interacts specifically with the W box (5'-(T)TGAC[CT]-3'), a frequently occurring elicitor-responsive cis-acting element. Positively modulates defense-related gene expression and disease resistance. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12068113}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. WRKY18 interacts both physically and functionally with WRKY40 and WRKY60 in a complex pattern of overlapping, antagonistic, and distinct roles in plant responses to different types of microbial pathogens.
    [PMID: 16603654]
  2. Loss-of-WRKY18/40 positively affects pre-invasion resistance to G. orontii.
    [PMID: 21143673]
  3. Data suggest that WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 form a highly interacting regulatory network that modulates gene expression in both plant defense and stress responses by acting as either transcription activator or repressor.
    [PMID: 21167067]
  4. The susceptibility of wrky18 mutant lines to volatiles was significantly delayed, suggesting an indispensable role for WRKY18 in bacterial volatile responses.
    [PMID: 22188129]
  5. Comprehensive infection studies demonstrated the specificity of wrky18 wrky40-mediated Golovinomyces orontii resistance. WRKY18 and WRKY40 act as positive regulators in effector-triggered immunity.
    [PMID: 23617415]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By salicylic acid and pathogens. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11449049, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12068113}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G64280(A), AT1G75040(A), AT2G14610(A), AT4G00340(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDsalicylic acid
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT4G31800, AT1G80840
IntActSearch Q9C5T4
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT4G31800
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAF4284210.0AF428421.1 Arabidopsis thaliana AT4g31800/F28M20_10 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAK2274010.0AK227401.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for WRKY like transcription factor, complete cds, clone: RAFL14-06-B12.
GenBankAY1255570.0AY125557.1 Arabidopsis thaliana AT4g31800/F28M20_10 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_567882.10.0WRKY DNA-binding protein 18
SwissprotQ9C5T40.0WRK18_ARATH; WRKY transcription factor 18
TrEMBLQ0WTZ30.0Q0WTZ3_ARATH; WRKY like transcription factor
STRINGAT4G31800.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP1417875
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Eulgem T,Rushton PJ,Robatzek S,Somssich IE
    The WRKY superfamily of plant transcription factors.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2000. 5(5): p. 199-206
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  3. Yu D,Chen C,Chen Z
    Evidence for an important role of WRKY DNA binding proteins in the regulation of NPR1 gene expression.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(7): p. 1527-40
  4. Cheong YH, et al.
    Transcriptional profiling reveals novel interactions between wounding, pathogen, abiotic stress, and hormonal responses in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 129(2): p. 661-77
  5. Chen C,Chen Z
    Potentiation of developmentally regulated plant defense response by AtWRKY18, a pathogen-induced Arabidopsis transcription factor.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 129(2): p. 706-16
  6. Dong J,Chen C,Chen Z
    Expression profiles of the Arabidopsis WRKY gene superfamily during plant defense response.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2003. 51(1): p. 21-37
  7. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  8. Xu X,Chen C,Fan B,Chen Z
    Physical and functional interactions between pathogen-induced Arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 transcription factors.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(5): p. 1310-26
  9. Alignan M,Hewezi T,Petitprez M,Dechamp-Guillaume G,Gentzbittel L
    A cDNA microarray approach to decipher sunflower (Helianthus annuus) responses to the necrotrophic fungus Phoma macdonaldii.
    New Phytol., 2006. 170(3): p. 523-36
  10. Kim KC,Fan B,Chen Z
    Pathogen-induced Arabidopsis WRKY7 is a transcriptional repressor and enhances plant susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 142(3): p. 1180-92
  11. Wang D,Amornsiripanitch N,Dong X
    A genomic approach to identify regulatory nodes in the transcriptional network of systemic acquired resistance in plants.
    PLoS Pathog., 2006. 2(11): p. e123
  12. Shen QH, et al.
    Nuclear activity of MLA immune receptors links isolate-specific and basal disease-resistance responses.
    Science, 2007. 315(5815): p. 1098-103
  13. Libault M,Wan J,Czechowski T,Udvardi M,Stacey G
    Identification of 118 Arabidopsis transcription factor and 30 ubiquitin-ligase genes responding to chitin, a plant-defense elicitor.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2007. 20(8): p. 900-11
  14. Wang Z, et al.
    Identification and characterization of COI1-dependent transcription factor genes involved in JA-mediated response to wounding in Arabidopsis plants.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2008. 27(1): p. 125-35
  15. Ascencio-Ib
    Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression uncovers a complex array of changes impacting pathogen response and cell cycle during geminivirus infection.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(1): p. 436-54
  16. Kim KC,Lai Z,Fan B,Chen Z
    Arabidopsis WRKY38 and WRKY62 transcription factors interact with histone deacetylase 19 in basal defense.
    Plant Cell, 2008. 20(9): p. 2357-71
  17. Chandran D, et al.
    Temporal global expression data reveal known and novel salicylate-impacted processes and regulators mediating powdery mildew growth and reproduction on Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 149(3): p. 1435-51
  18. Chang IF, et al.
    Proteomic profiling of tandem affinity purified 14-3-3 protein complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Proteomics, 2009. 9(11): p. 2967-85
  19. Peng Y, et al.
    OsWRKY62 is a negative regulator of basal and Xa21-mediated defense against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice.
    Mol Plant, 2008. 1(3): p. 446-58
  20. Makandar R, et al.
    Involvement of salicylate and jasmonate signaling pathways in Arabidopsis interaction with Fusarium graminearum.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2010. 23(7): p. 861-70
  21. Shang Y, et al.
    The Mg-chelatase H subunit of Arabidopsis antagonizes a group of WRKY transcription repressors to relieve ABA-responsive genes of inhibition.
    Plant Cell, 2010. 22(6): p. 1909-35
  22. Pandey SP,Roccaro M,Sch
    Transcriptional reprogramming regulated by WRKY18 and WRKY40 facilitates powdery mildew infection of Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2010. 64(6): p. 912-23
  23. Chen H, et al.
    Roles of arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 transcription factors in plant responses to abscisic acid and abiotic stress.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2010. 10: p. 281
  24. Arabidopsis Interactome Mapping Consortium
    Evidence for network evolution in an Arabidopsis interactome map.
    Science, 2011. 333(6042): p. 601-7
  25. Wenke K, et al.
    Volatiles of two growth-inhibiting rhizobacteria commonly engage AtWRKY18 function.
    Plant J., 2012. 70(3): p. 445-59
  26. Liu ZQ, et al.
    Cooperation of three WRKY-domain transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 in repressing two ABA-responsive genes ABI4 and ABI5 in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2012. 63(18): p. 6371-92
  27. Schweizer F,Bodenhausen N,Lassueur S,Masclaux FG,Reymond P
    Differential Contribution of Transcription Factors to Arabidopsis thaliana Defense Against Spodoptera littoralis.
    Front Plant Sci, 2013. 4: p. 13
  28. Brotman Y, et al.
    Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.
    PLoS Pathog., 2013. 9(3): p. e1003221
  29. Sch
    Analyses of wrky18 wrky40 plants reveal critical roles of SA/EDS1 signaling and indole-glucosinolate biosynthesis for Golovinomyces orontii resistance and a loss-of resistance towards Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato AvrRPS4.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2013. 26(7): p. 758-67
  30. Koyama T, et al.
    A regulatory cascade involving class II ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcriptional repressors operates in the progression of leaf senescence.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 162(2): p. 991-1005
  31. Zhang XF, et al.
    Cochaperonin CPN20 negatively regulates abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2013. 83(3): p. 205-18
  32. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73